Optimising the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in the Era of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis Based on the Prostate MR Imaging Study (PROMIS)

The current recommendation of using transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSB) to diagnose prostate cancer misses clinically significant (CS) cancers. More sensitive biopsies (eg, template prostate mapping biopsy [TPMB]) are too resource intensive for routine use, and there is little evidence on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI).

To identify the most effective and cost-effective way of using these tests to detect CS prostate cancer.

Cost-effectiveness modelling of health outcomes and costs of men referred to secondary care with a suspicion of prostate cancer prior to any biopsy in the UK National Health Service using information from the diagnostic Prostate MR Imaging Study (PROMIS).

Combinations of MPMRI, TRUSB, and TPMB, using different definitions and diagnostic cut-offs for CS cancer.

Strategies that detect the most CS cancers given testing costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) given long-term costs.

The use of MPMRI first and then up to two MRI-targeted TRUSBs detects more CS cancers per pound spent than a strategy using TRUSB first (sensitivity = 0.95 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.92-0.98] vs 0.91 [95% CI 0.86-0.94]) and is cost effective (ICER = £7,076 [€8350/QALY gained]). The limitations stem from the evidence base in the accuracy of MRI-targeted biopsy and the long-term outcomes of men with CS prostate cancer.

An MPMRI-first strategy is effective and cost effective for the diagnosis of CS prostate cancer. These findings are sensitive to the test costs, sensitivity of MRI-targeted TRUSB, and long-term outcomes of men with cancer, which warrant more empirical research. This analysis can inform the development of clinical guidelines.

We found that, under certain assumptions, the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging first and then up to two transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is better than the current clinical standard and is good value for money.

European urology. 2017 Sep 18 [Epub ahead of print]

Rita Faria, Marta O Soares, Eldon Spackman, Hashim U Ahmed, Louise C Brown, Richard Kaplan, Mark Emberton, Mark J Sculpher

Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK. Electronic address: ., Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK., University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada., Imperial Urology-Division of Surgery, Imperial College London, London, UK; Imperial Urology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust., Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, London, UK. Electronic address: ., Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, London, UK., Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

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