To investigate elevated or rising prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a marker for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in patients with minor lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and without prostate cancer.
One hundred and five consecutive patients were prospectively analyzed between 2005 and 2013. All patients were referred to the principal investigator by their general practitioner as a result of an elevated and/or rising PSA. Only patients with minor LUTS [International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) 0-19] and without suspicion for prostate cancer were included. All patients had BOO, shown by full urodynamics, and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate. The resected tissue was histologically examined and PSA and I-PSS were evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months and later on yearly.
Mean pre-operative PSA and I-PSS values were 8.8 ng/ml and 11.1, respectively. The mean detrusor pressure at maximum flow was 93.6 cmH2O. The mean resected volume was 52 g and the mean prostate biopsy rate was 1.8. Eighty-three of 105 patients (79%) had no malignancy and were diagnosed with BOO due to benign prostate hyperplasia (subgroup 1). Their mean PSA decreased from 9.2 to 0.7 ng/ml and 0.9 ng/ml after 6 and 12 months post-operation, respectively. The mean I-PSS declined from 11 to 3 after 6 and 12 months. Sixteen of 105 patients (15%) were treated for prostate cancer (subgroup 2). Radical prostatectomy was performed in 11 patients, brachytherapy in 3 patients and external beam radiotherapy in 2 patients. Six of 105 patients (5.7%) had active surveillance (subgroup 3).
BOO can cause an elevated or rising PSA in patients with minor LUTS and negative screening for prostate cancer. Transurethral resection of the prostate is an adequate treatment for these patients.
Current urology. 2017 Jul 30 [Epub]
Evert Baten, Koenraad van Renterghem
UZ Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.