Molecular biomarkers to guide precision medicine in localized prostate cancer

Major advances through tumor profiling technologies, that include next-generation sequencing, epigenetic, proteomic and transcriptomic methods, have been made in primary prostate cancer, providing novel biomarkers that may guide precision medicine in the near future. Areas covered: The authors provided an overview of novel molecular biomarkers in tissue, blood and urine that may be used as clinical tools to assess prognosis, improve selection criteria for active surveillance programs, and detect disease relapse early in localized prostate cancer. Expert commentary: Active surveillance (AS) in localized prostate cancer is an accepted strategy in patients with very low-risk prostate cancer. Many more patients may benefit from watchful waiting, and include patients of higher clinical stage and grade, however selection criteria have to be optimized and early recognition of transformation from localized to lethal disease has to be improved by addition of molecular biomarkers. The role of non-invasive biomarkers is challenging the need for repeat biopsies, commonly performed at 1 and 4 years in men under AS programs.

Expert review of molecular diagnostics. 2017 Jun 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Minke Smits, Niven Mehra, Michiel Sedelaar, Winald Gerritsen, Jack A Schalken

a Radboud Universiteit , Nijmegen , Gelderland 6500 HC , Netherlands.