To develop a treatment protocol for (225)Ac-PSMA-617 alpha-radiation therapy in advanced stage, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with PSMA-positive tumor phenotype. Methods: A dosimetry estimate was calculated based on time-activity-curves derived from serially performed (177)Lu-PSMA-617 scans extrapolated to the physical half-life of (225)Ac, assuming instant decay of instable daughter nuclides. Salvage therapies empirically conducted with 50kBq/kg (n = 4), 100kBq/kg (n = 4), 150kBq/kg (n = 2), 200kBq/kg (n = 4) (225)Ac-PSMA-617 were evaluated retrospectively regarding toxicity and treatment response. 8 out of 14 patients received further cycles in either 2 or 4 months intervals with identical or de-escalated activities. Results: Dosimetry estimates for 1 MBq of (225)Ac-PSMA-617 assuming a relative biological effectiveness of 5 revealed mean doses of 2.3 Sv for salivary glands, 0.7 Sv for kidneys and 0.05 Sv for red marrow that are composed of 99.4% alpha, 0.5% beta and 0.1% photon radiation, respectively. In clinical application, severe xerostomia became the dose-limiting toxicity if treatment activity exceeded 100kBq/kg per cycle. At 100kBq/kg duration of PSA-decline was <4 months, but if therapy was repeated every 2 months patients experienced additive anti-tumor effects. Treatment activities of 50kBq/kg were without toxicity but induced insufficient anti-tumor response in these high tumor burden patients. Remarkable anti-tumor activity by means of objective radiological response or tumor marker decline was observed in 9/11 evaluable patients. Conclusion: For advanced stage patients a treatment activity of 100kBq/kg (225)Ac-PSMA-617 per cycle repeated every 8 weeks presents a reasonable trade-off between toxicity and biochemical response.
Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2017 Apr 13 [Epub ahead of print]
Clemens Kratochwil, Frank Bruchertseifer, Hendrik Rathke, Marcus Bronzel, Christos Apostolidis, Wilko Weichert, Uwe Haberkorn, Frederick Lars Giesel, Alfred Morgenstern
University Hospital of Heidelberg, Germany., EC-JRC, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security,, Germany., University Hospital Heidelberg., ABX-CRO, Dresden, Germany., Dep. Pathology, University Hospital Technical University Munich.