Treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer (Stage T3)

Formerly, locally advanced prostate cancer exhibited poorly prognosis. In the late 1990s, new surgical and radiation technologies were introduced in combination with androgen deprivation. To evaluate respective strategies, outcomes were examined.

Between 2001 and 2010, 224 patients with T3N0M0 (10.9% of all prostate cancer cases) were treated with prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy with/without androgen deprivation or hormone alone. Complete records were obtained by the end of 2015.

Operation group first started without adjuvant treatment and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse occurred in 39% of cases. Radiation therapy group was alternatively divided into two subgroups, that received either monotherapy or combination with androgen deprivation, and PSA relapse rates were 65 and 16%, respectively. High rates of PSA relapse in both the operation and radiation therapy groups were observed in patients without adjuvant therapy, but after relapse androgen deprivation proceeded favorable outcomes. In the radiation subgroups, PSA relapse rates were different, but both subsequent survival rates were the same. This may be due to the effect of androgen deprivation after relapse, indicating effect of delayed therapy. PSA relapse rate in the hormone therapy group was 25% and after relapse, patients applied to treatment with other hormonal and anticancer drugs. Overall survival rates were 91, 88 and 67% in the operation, radiation therapy and hormone therapy groups, respectively.

Aggressive treatment with short-term androgen deprivation for locally advanced prostate cancer could be beneficial and not harmful when suitable candidates are selected. Delayed androgen deprivation was effective for no adjuvant patients after PSA relapse.

Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2017 Jan 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Yoshiyasu Amiya, Yasutaka Yamada, Masahiro Sugiura, Makoto Sasaki, Takayuki Shima, Noriyuki Suzuki, Hiroomi Nakatsu, Shino Murakami, Jun Shimazaki

Department of Urology, Asahi General Hospital, Asahi., Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan .