Image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer is widely used in radiotherapy departments. Intraprostatic gold fiducial markers are used to visualize prostate position and motion before and during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe our experience of implanting intraprostatic fiducial markers under local anesthesia before hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for prostate cancer and to assess its tolerance and reproducibility.
Over a 6 and a half year period, 226 patients with prostate cancer received a stereotactic radiotherapy using the CyberKnife(®) system (Accuray) in our institution. Eighteen patients were treated for recurrence after prostatectomy; these patients were excluded from the study. Among the 208 remaining patients, 94 patients (45.2%) received stereotactic radiotherapy as a boost after external beam radiotherapy (three fractions of 6Gy); 36 patients (17.3%) were had a re-irradiation (six fractions of 6Gy) and 78 patients (37.5%) had a exclusive stereotactic radiotherapy (68 patients received five fractions of 7.25Gy and 11 patients five fractions of 6.25Gy). Four markers were implanted in all patients using transrectal ultrasound; the procedure was performed under local anesthesia, using transperineal access. The four fiducial markers were implanted in two strands with two fiducial each one, 1cm apart. In order to follow the recommendations of the image-guided radiotherapy system, the two strands of the two markers were located on the same plane in the middle of the prostate, at least 2cm apart from the midline. After insertion, correct positioning of fiducials markers was verified by X-ray. Dosimetry scanning was performed after the implantation procedure; prostate position tracking was possible before and during treatment through the kilovoltage incorporated system of the robotic accelerator. Clinical data, X-ray verification and dosimetry scanner have been retrospectively reviewed for all patients.
The tolerance to procedure was excellent; only four patients (1.8%) described pain related to implant. No urinary side effects were reported. Median time from fiducial implantation to dosimetry scanner was 16 days (4-113 days). Four fiducials were found within the prostate at dosimetry scanner in 181 patients and three in 27 remaining patients. All intraprostatic fiducials were used to track the prostate gland before and during treatment.
Intraprostatic fiducial markers implantation is a safe and reproducible procedure that allows us to have reliable prostate information before and during stereotactic radiotherapy.
Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique. 2016 Oct 25 [Epub ahead of print]
A Cordoba, D Pasquier, P Nickers, T Lacornerie, É Lartigau
Département universitaire de radiothérapie, centre de lutte contre le cancer Oscar-Lambret, 3, rue Fréderic-Combemale, 59020 Lille cedex, France; Site de recherche intégrée sur le cancer (Siric) OncoLille, 3, rue Fréderic-Combemale, 59020 Lille cedex, France; Université de Lille, 2, avenue Oscar-Lambret, 59000 Lille, France. Electronic address: ., Département universitaire de radiothérapie, centre de lutte contre le cancer Oscar-Lambret, 3, rue Fréderic-Combemale, 59020 Lille cedex, France; Site de recherche intégrée sur le cancer (Siric) OncoLille, 3, rue Fréderic-Combemale, 59020 Lille cedex, France; Université de Lille, 2, avenue Oscar-Lambret, 59000 Lille, France.