Adherence to the WCRF/AICR Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention and Risk of Cancer in Elderly from Europe and the United States: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Project

It is unknown if dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and US adults aged 60 years and above.

Individual participant data meta-analysis including 362,114 participants (43% women), from seven prospective cohort studies, free from cancer at enrollment. The WCRF/AICR diet score was based on: 1) energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, 2) plant foods, 3) red and processed meat 4) alcoholic drinks. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the diet score and cancer risks. Adjusted, cohort-specific hazard ratios (HR) were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk Advancement Periods (RAP) were calculated to quantify the time period by which the risk of cancer was postponed among those adhering to the recommendations.

After a median follow-up of 11 to 15 years across cohorts, 69,708 cancer cases were identified. Each one-point increase in the WCRF/AICR diet score [range 0 (no) to 4 (complete adherence)] was significantly associated with a lower risk of total cancer (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97), cancers of the colorectum (HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.80-0.89), prostate (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97), but not breast or lung. Adherence to an additional component of the WCRF/AICR diet score significantly postponed the incidence of cancer at any site by 1.6 years (RAP: -1.6, 95% CI: -4.09 to -2.16).

Adherence to WCRF/AICR dietary recommendations is associated with lower risk of cancer among older adults.

Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2016 Oct 28 [Epub ahead of print]

Nicole Jankovic, Anouk Geelen, Renate M Winkels, Blaise Mwungura, Veronika Fedirko, Mazda Jenab, Anne K Illner, Hermann Brenner, Jose M Ordonez-Mena, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Oscar H Franco, Philippos Orfanos, Antonia Trichopoulou, Paolo Boffetta, Antonio Agudo, Petra H Peeters, Anne Tjonneland, Goran Hallmans, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Yikyung Park, Edith J Feskens, Lisette C de Groot, Ellen Kampman

Centre of Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology ., Department Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University., Department of Epidemiology, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, Winship Cancer Institute., Department Nutritional Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer., Department of Nutrition & Health Sciences, Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais., Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center., Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)., Global Public Health, Leiden University College, The Hague., Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam, University Medical Centre Rotterdam., Hellenic Health Foundation., Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Athens, School of Medicine., The Tisch Cancer Institute and Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine., Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology., Imperial College London., Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center., Public Health and Clinical Medicine: Nutritional Research, Umeå University., National Institute for Public Health and the Environment., Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis., Wageningen University., Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands.