Image Guided Planning for Prostate Carcinomas With Incorporation of Anti-3-[18F]FACBC (Fluciclovine) Positron Emission Tomography: Workflow and Initial Findings From a Randomized Trial.

(18)F-Fluciclovine (anti-1-amino-3-[(18)F]fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) radiotracer that has demonstrated utility for detection of prostate cancer. Our goal is to report the initial results from a randomized controlled trial of the integration of (18)F-fluciclovine PET-CT into treatment planning for defining prostate bed and lymph node target volumes.

We report our initial findings from a cohort of 41 patients, of the first enrolled on a randomized controlled trial, who were randomized to the (18)F-fluciclovine arm. All patients underwent (18)F-fluciclovine PET-CT for the detection of metabolic abnormalities and high-resolution CT for treatment planning. The 2 datasets were registered first by use of a rigid registration. If soft tissue displacement was observable, the rigid registration was improved with a deformable registration. Each (18)F-fluciclovine abnormality was segmented as a percentage of the maximum standard uptake value (SUV) within a small region of interest around the lesion. The percentage best describing the SUV falloff was integrated in planning by expanding standard target volumes with the PET abnormality.

In 21 of 55 abnormalities, a deformable registration was needed to map the (18)F-fluciclovine activity into the simulation CT. The most selected percentage was 50% of maximum SUV, although values ranging from 15% to 70% were used for specific patients, illustrating the need for a per-patient selection of a threshold SUV value. The inclusion of (18)F-fluciclovine changed the planning volumes for 46 abnormalities (83%) of the total 55, with 28 (51%) located in the lymph nodes, 11 (20%) in the prostate bed, 10 (18%) in the prostate, and 6 (11%) in the seminal vesicles. Only 9 PET abnormalities were fully contained in the standard target volumes based on the CT-based segmentations and did not necessitate expansion.

The use of (18)F-fluciclovine in postprostatectomy radiation therapy planning was feasible and led to augmentation of the target volumes in the majority (30 of 41) of the patients studied.

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2016 Apr 30 [Epub]

Eduard Schreibmann, David M Schuster, Peter J Rossi, Joseph Shelton, Sherrie Cooper, Ashesh B Jani

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia., Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia., Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia., Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia., Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

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