Strategies for prevention of ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy infections.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male patients and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males. To confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is necessary to obtain prostate tissue sufficient for histologic analysis by pathologists. Ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy can be accomplished via a transperineal or transrectal approach. The latter biopsy technique involves placing an ultrasound probe into the rectum, visualizing the prostate located just anterior to it, and then obtaining 12-14 biopsies. Each biopsy core requires piercing of the rectal mucosa which can inherently contribute to infection. The increasing infectious risk of prostate needle biopsy requires refinement and re-evaluation of the process in which the technique is performed. Such processes include (but are not limited to) prebiopsy risk stratification, antibiotic prophylaxis, use of rectal preparations, and equipment processing. In the subsequent review, we highlight the current available information on different strategies to reduce the risk of infection following prostate needle biopsy.

Infection and drug resistance. 2016 Jul 08*** epublish ***

Diane D Lu, Jay D Raman

Division of Urology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA., Division of Urology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.