Ethnicity and the prostate cancer experience: a qualitative metasynthesis.

To summarise black and minority ethnic (BME) patients' and partners experiences of prostate cancer (PCa) by examining the findings of existing qualitative studies METHODS: We undertook a systematic metasynthesis of qualitative studies using a modified version of Noblit and Hare's 'meta-ethnography' approach, with a 2000-2015 search of seven databases.

Thirteen studies of men from US and UK BME groups were included. We explored constructs with BME-specific features. Healthcare provider relationships, formation of a spiritual alliance with God (which enhanced the participants' feeling of empowerment and ability to cope with the cancer) and living on for others (generally to increase cancer awareness), often connected to spiritual regrowth, were the three constructs most commonly reported. A magnified effect from erectile dysfunction was also common. Initially this affected men's disclosure to others about their cancer and their sexual problems, but eventually men responded by shifting their conceptualisations of masculinity to sustain self and social identities. There was also evidence of inequality resulting from financial constraints and adversity that necessitated resilience in coping.

The prostate cancer experience of BME men and their partners is affected by a complex intersection of ethnicity with other factors. Healthcare services should acknowledge this. If providers recognise the men's felt masculinities, social identities and spiritual beliefs and their shifting nature, services could be improved, with community as well as individual benefits. More studies are needed in diverse ethnic groups.

Psycho-oncology. 2016 Jul 14 [Epub ahead of print]

Carol Rivas, Lauren Matheson, Johana Nayoan, Adam Glaser, Anna Gavin, Penny Wright, Richard Wagland, Eila Watson

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland., Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford., Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford., Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds., School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast., Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds., Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland., Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford.