Cadmium exposure and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies among the general and occupational populations.

We aimed to evaluate the association of cadmium exposure with the risk of prostate cancer in both the general and occupational populations. Online database searches were performed for studies of prostate cancer risk and cadmium exposure. Twelve cohort studies (5 in the general, 7 in occupational populations) and 9 case-control studies (3 in the general, 6 in occupational populations) were identified. Five/seven cohort studies in the general and occupational populations consist of 78,263/13, 434 participants with a mean follow-up of 12.1/43.0 years, respectively. Case-control studies include 334 cases/670 controls in the general population, and 1,315 cases/4,477 controls in occupational populations. Comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure in the general population, the weighted relative risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality among cohort studies, and the weighted odds ratio in case-control studies were 1.05 (95%CI [0.91, 1.22]), 0.83 (95%CI [0.35, 1.98]), and 1.27 (95%CI [0.58,2.78]), respectively. For occupational populations, the weighted OR in case-control studies was 1.17 (95%CI [0.85, 1.62]), and the weighted standardized mortality ratio in cohort studies was 98 (95%CI [75, 126]). Accumulated epidemiological evidence does not support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure may increase the risk of prostate cancer in either the general or occupational populations.

Scientific reports. 2016 May 13*** epublish ***

Cheng Chen, Pengcheng Xun, Muneko Nishijo, Sue Carter, Ka He

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan., Kinsey Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.