The androgen receptor (AR) and the androgen-AR signaling pathway play a significant role in male sexual differentiation and the development and function of male reproductive and non-reproductive organs.
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Because of AR's widely varied and important roles, its abnormalities have been identified in various diseases such as androgen insensitivity syndrome, spinal bulbar muscular atrophy, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. This review provides an overview of the function of androgens and androgen-AR mediated diseases. In addition, the diseases delineated above are discussed with respect to their association with mutations and other post-transcriptional modifications in the AR. Finally, we present an introduction to the potential therapeutic application of most recent pharmaceuticals including miRNAs in prostate cancer that specifically target the transactivation function of the AR at post-transcriptional stages.
Andrology. 2016 Mar 16 [Epub ahead of print]
G C Shukla, A R Plaga, E Shankar, S Gupta
Center of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA., Center of Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA., Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University & University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA., Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University & University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.