Prostate Health Index and %p2PSA Predict Aggressive Prostate Cancer Pathology in Chinese Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

To investigate the performance of prostate health index (PHI) and percentage prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (%p2PSA) in predicting pathologic outcomes at radical prostatectomy (RP) in a Chinese population.

We performed a prospective study of 135 prostate cancer patients with RP. The accuracy of preoperative %p2PSA (= p2PSA/free PSA) and PHI [= (p2PSA/free PSA) × √PSA] in predicting pathologic outcomes of RP including pT3 disease, pathologic Gleason score (pGS) ≥7, Gleason score (GS) upgrade at RP, tumor volume >0.5 ml, and Epstein criteria for significant tumor were calculated using multivariate analyses and area under the curve. The base model in multivariate analysis included age, PSA, abnormal digital rectal examination, and biopsy GS.

PHI was significantly higher in patients with pT3 or pGS ≥ 7 (p < 0.001), pT3 disease (p = 0.001), pGS ≥ 7 (p < 0.001), GS upgrade (p < 0.001), tumor volume >0.5 ml (p < 0.001), and Epstein criteria for significant tumor (p = 0.001). %p2PSA was also significantly higher in all the above outcomes. The risk of pT3 or pGS ≥ 7 was 16.1 % for PHI < 35 and 60.8 % for PHI > 35 (sensitivity 84.2 %, specificity of 60.3 %), and the risk of tumor volume >0.5 ml was 25.5 % for PHI < 35 and 72.6 % for PHI > 35 (sensitivity 79.1 %, specificity 67.2 %). In multivariate analysis, adding %p2PSA or PHI to the base model significantly improved the accuracy (area under the curve) in predicting pT3 or pGS ≥ 7 (by 7.2-7.9 %), tumor volume >0.5 ml (by 10.3-12.8 %), and Epstein criteria for significant tumor (by 13.9-15.9 %). Net clinical benefit was observed in decision curve analyses for prediction of both tumor volume >0.5 ml, and pT3 or pGS ≥ 7.

Both PHI and %p2PSA predict aggressive and significant pathologies in RP in Chinese men. This enabled identification of nonaggressive cancers for better counseling on active surveillance or treatment.

Annals of surgical oncology. 2016 Mar 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Peter Ka-Fung Chiu, Fernand Mac-Moune Lai, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Wai-Man Lee, Chi-Hang Yee, Eddie Shu-Yin Chan, See-Ming Hou, Chi-Fai Ng

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China., Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China. .