Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics of Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Update.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in males living in the United States, and approximately 222,800 men will contract PCa in 2015. Recent molecular studies have found novel genetic associations with PCa and genetic changes of potential clinical relevance in cancer detection and treatment.

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have revealed unique SNPs connected with patient ethnicity and other medical conditions, as well as uncovered new information on genes such as KLK3, which produces prostate specific antigen (PSA) and promotes PCa metastasis. Identification of embryonic stem cell gene predictors serve as more accurate indicators when used with clinical parameters (e. g. , PSA levels, biopsy Gleason score, clinical stage) in determining the risk of developing prostate cancer and survival times than clinical parameters alone. Studies utilizing exome sequencing have linked mutations in specific genes with PCa progression. In this review, we summarize the most recent and significant molecular and cytogenetic PCa literature, and discuss directions for future research focused on improving diagnostic utility and supplanting PSA testing.

Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists. 2015 [Epub]

Laksha N Fonseka, Michael E Kallen, Alejandro Serrato-Guillen, Randy Chow, Carlos A Tirado