Factors associated with prostate cancer screening behavior among men over 50 in Fasa, Iran, based on the PRECEDE model.

BACKGROUND - Prostate cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in the world. The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with prostate cancer screening behaviors among men over 50 in Fasa, Iran, based on the PRECEDE model.

METHODS - In this cross-sectional study, 400 men over 50 were studied in Fasa, Iran. Data were collected via a questionnaire on demographic characteristics, such as age, number of children, occupation, education, marital status, smoking, and prostate cancer screening behaviors. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16. Independent samples t-test and the Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analyses.

RESULTS - Men in the study had little knowledge (34.11±8.22) and attitude (28.23±7.23) about prostate cancer and screening behavior. Their mean scores about prostate cancer, screening behavior, quality of life, and general health were moderate. The subjects had low self-efficacy and perceived social support. Their mean scores of enabling factors and screening behaviors were at a low level. Pearson correlation scores showed a significant correlation between cancer prostate screening behavior and demographic variables, such as age (p=0.04, r=0.136), occupation (p=0.01, r=0.121), educational level (p=0.02, r=0.211), and marital status of the subjects (p=0.01, r=0.112), but there were not significant correlations with the number of children (p=0.12, r=0.092) and smoking (p=0.09, r=0.002). The T-test results showed significant relationships between age, occupation, and education of the subjects, and the PRECEDE model structures were significant for predisposing factors, enabling factors, and reinforcing factors (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS - The prostate cancer screening behaviors in men over 50 in Fasa, Iran, were at a low level. Due to predisposing factors, such as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of individuals, reinforcing factors can have an important role in the behaviors related to prostate screening, such as their families and health staffs as well as enabling factors, such as health financing, access to medicines and learning self-care. Educational interventions to improve these behaviors and the quality of life of these people seem essential.

Electron Physician. 2015 Jun 5;7(2):1054-62. doi: 10.14661/2015.1054-1062.

Jeihooni AK1, Kashfi SM2, Kashfi SH3, Heydarabadi AB4, Imanzad M5, Hafez AA6.

1 Department of Public Health, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Fars, Iran.
2 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Fars, Iran.
3 M.Sc. of Teaching in English, Faculty member of Larestan nursing school, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
4 Public Health Department, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
5 School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
6 Cancer Prevention Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.