The role of 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Abstract

CONTEXT: The role of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prostate cancer (PCa) imaging is still debated, although guidelines for their use have emerged over the last few years.

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of the available evidence of PET and PET/CT using 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine as tracers in imaging PCa patients in staging and restaging settings.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (by citation of reference) were searched. Reference lists of review articles and included articles were checked to complement electronic searches.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In staging patients with proven but untreated PCa, the results of the meta-analysis on a per-patient basis (10 studies, n = 637) showed pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68-93%), 79% (95% CI, 53-93%), and 20.4 (95% CI, 9.9-42.0), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 4.02 (95% CI, 1.73-9.31) and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.11-0.37), respectively. On a per-lesion basis (11 studies, n = 5117), these values were 66% (95% CI, 56-75%), 92% (95% CI, 78-97%), and 22.7 (95% CI, 8.9-58.0), respectively, for pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR; and 8.29 (95% CI, 3.05-22.54) and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.29-0.46), respectively, for positive and negative likelihood ratios. In restaging patients with biochemical failure after local treatment with curative intent, the meta-analysis results on a per-patient basis (12 studies, n = 1055) showed pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of 85% (95% CI, 79-89%), 88% (95% CI, 73-95%), and 41.4 (95% CI, 19.7-86.8), respectively; the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.06 (95% CI, 3.06-16.27) and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.13-0.22), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: PET and PET/CT imaging with 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine in restaging of patients with biochemical failure after local treatment for PCa might help guide further treatment decisions. In staging of patients with proven but untreated, high-risk PCa, there is limited but promising evidence warranting further studies. However, the current evidence shows crucial limitations in terms of its applicability in common clinical scenarios.

Written by:
Umbehr MH, M√ľntener M, Hany T, Sulser T, Bachmann LM.   Are you the author?
Horten Center for Patient Oriented Research and Knowledge Transfer, University of Zurich, Pestalozzistrasse 24, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Urology, University of Zurich, University Hospital, Frauenklinikstrasse 10, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Reference: Eur Urol. 2013 Apr 19. pii: S0302-2838(13)00382-5.
doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.04.019

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 23628493 Prostate Cancer Section