Castration resistant prostatic carcinoma (CRPC) is defined as tumor progression despite an effective castration (serum testosterone levels < 50 ng/dL).
Biochemical progression requires at least two successive increases from the previous lowest value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spaced at least a week, and with a minimum value of 2 ng/mL. In patients receiving complete androgen blockade, antiandrogen should be discontinued prior to diagnosis of CRPC. CPRC is a heterogeneous entity. Baseline PSA and PSA velocity seem to be the most important prognostic factors in patients with biochemical relapse as the only manifestation of CRPC. Some of these patients can be followed without treatment until disease progression. Because of a large proportion of tumors progressing under androgen deprivation therapy remain hormone-dependent, the use of other hormonal therapies has been the preferred treatment for the majority of these patients. Besides inhibitors of adrenal steroidogenesis, other novel hormonal approaches are currently under investigation to avoid the effect of the activated androgenic receptor on the tumor cell. In recent years there has been an important development of immunotherapy, which has demonstrated to increase survival in CRPC oligosymptomatic patients. First and second line chemotherapy in CRPC are associated with an increase in overall survival, but they are usually recommended for patients with metastases. Until the results of ongoing trials are available, the type and timing of the treatment for patients with CRPC and biochemical recurrence should be individualized.
Arija JA, Beca RG, López CL, Domínguez PS, Lovelle AS, Gilarranz YJ. Are you the author?
Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España.
Reference: Arch Esp Urol. 2012 Jan-Feb;65(1):185-92.
Article in Spanish.