Routine dual-color immunostaining with a 3-antibody cocktail improves the detection of small cancers in prostate needle biopsies - Abstract

Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Department of Pathology, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.



We performed dual-color immunostaining with a 3-antibody cocktail (α-methylacyl coenzyme-A racemase, CK34betaE12, and p63) on prostate biopsies from 200 patients. Current practice (hematoxylin and eosin staining followed by dual-color immunostaining on selected cases) was compared with a protocol in which routine dual-color immunostaining was provided in all cases. In the original pathology reports, adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 87/200 (43%) patients. Small foci interpreted as putative cancers were detected with dual-color immunostaining in 14/113 patients who were originally diagnosed with a nonmalignant lesion. All of the suggested cancerous foci were independently reevaluated by 5 pathologists. A diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was assessed by consensus in 8 cases, and atypical small acinar proliferation was diagnosed in 1 case. Consensus was not reached in 5 cases. Six of the foci reclassified as cancer were of Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6, while 2 were graded as Gleason score 4 + 4 = 8. The feasibility of routine dual-color immunostaining was also tested by analyzing the time spent on microscopic assessment. Because small, atypical lesions expressing α-methylacyl coenzyme-A racemase (blue chromogen) were easy to detect using dual-color immunostaining, the microscopic analysis of dual-color immunostaining and hematoxylin-eosin staining was faster than that of hematoxylin-eosin staining alone that was later followed by dual-color immunostaining in selected cases (median 251 seconds versus 299 seconds, P < .0001). We concluded that routine dual-color immunostaining of all prostate biopsies would produce better diagnostic sensitivity with a smaller microscopy workload for the pathologist. However, minute foci interpreted as cancer with dual-color immunostaining need to be confirmed with hematoxylin-eosin staining, and minimal criteria for a definitive diagnosis of cancer are still lacking.

Written by:
Tolonen TT, Kujala PM, Laurila M, Tirkkonen M, Ilvesaro J, Tuominen VJ, Tammela TL, Isola J.   Are you the author?

Reference: Hum Pathol. 2011 Apr 14. Epub ahead of print.
doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.12.021

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 21497369 Prostate Cancer Section



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