The impact of pre-biopsy MRI and additional testing on prostate cancer screening outcomes: A rapid review.

This work aims to examine the latest evidence on the impact of pre-biopsy MRI, in addition to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, on health outcomes and quality of life.

We conducted a literature search including PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases, with a limited scan of (i) guidelines and (ii) references from trial reports, from January 2005 to 25th January 2023. Two independent reviewers selected randomised controlled trials (RCT) and cohort studies which met our inclusion criteria.

One hundred thirty-seven articles were identified, and seven trial articles were selected. Trial interventions were as follows: (i) PSA blood test, (ii) additional tests such as pre-biopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and Biparametric MRI (bpMRI), and (iii) MRI targeted biopsy and standard biopsy. Compared with standard biopsy, MRI-based interventions led to increased detection of clinically significant cancers in three studies and decreased detection of clinically insignificant cancer (Gleason grade 3 + 3) in four studies. However, PROstate Magnetic resonance Imaging Study (PROMIS) and Stockholm3 with MRI (STHLM3-MRI) studies reported different trends depending on the scenario studied in PROMIS (MRI triage and MRI directed biopsy vs. MRI triage and standard biopsy) and thresholds used in STHLM3-MRI (≥0·11 and ≥0·15). MRI also helped 8%-49% of men avoid biopsy, in six out of seven studies, but not in STHLM3-MRI at ≥0.11. Interestingly, the proportion of men who experienced sepsis and UTI was low across studies.

This review found that a combination of approaches, centred on the use of pre-biopsy MRI, may improve the detection of clinically significant cancers and reduce (i) the diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancers and (ii) unnecessary biopsies, compared with PSA testing and standard biopsy alone. However, the impact of such interventions on longer term outcomes such as prostate cancer-specific mortality has not yet been assessed.

BJUI compass. 2024 Jan 31*** epublish ***

Abel Tesfai, Natalia Norori, Thomas A Harding, Yui Hang Wong, Matthew David Hobbs

Prostate Cancer UK London UK.