Outcomes of 10 years of PSA screening for prostate cancer in Norwegian men with Lynch syndrome.

Pathogenic germline variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Since 2010 we have recommended MMR carriers annual PSA testing from the age of 40. Prospective studies of the outcome of long-term PSA screening are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and characteristics of PCa in Norwegian MMR carriers attending annual PSA screening (PSA threshold >3.0 ng/mL) to evaluate whether our recommendations should be continued.

This is a prospective observational study of 225 male MMR carriers who were recommended annual PSA screening by the Section of Inherited Cancer, Oslo University Hospital from 2010 and onwards. Incidence and tumor characteristics (age, PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score, TNM score) were described. IHC and MSI-analyses were done on available tumors. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated based on data from the Cancer Registry of Norway.

Twenty-two of 225 (9.8%) had been diagnosed with PCa, including 10/69 (14.5%) MSH2 carriers and 8/61 (13.1%) MSH6 carriers. Ten of 20 (50%) tumors had Gleason score ≥4 + 3 on biopsy and 6/11 (54.5%) had a pathological T3a/b stage. Eight of 17 (47.1%) tumors showed abnormal staining on IHC and 3/13 (23.1%) were MSI-high. SIR was 9.54 (95% CI 5.98-14.45) for all MMR genes, 13.0 (95% CI 6.23-23.9) for MSH2 and 13.74 for MSH6 (95% CI 5.93-27.08).

Our results indicate that the MMR genes, and especially MSH2 and MSH6, are associated with a significant risk of PCa, and a high number of tumors show aggressive characteristics. While the impact of screening on patient outcomes remains to be more firmly established, the high SIR values we observe provide support for continued PSA screening of MSH2 and MSH6 carriers. Studies are needed to provide optimal recommendations for PSA-threshold and to evaluate whether MLH1 and PMS2 carriers should not be recommended screening.

The Prostate. 2024 Apr 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Eli Marie Grindedal, Manuela Zucknick, Astrid Stormorken, Elin Rønne, Nora M Tandstad, William B Isaacs, Karol Axcrona, Lovise Mæhle

Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway., Department of Biostatistics, Oslo Centre for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway., Department of Pathology, St. Olav's Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway., Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA., Department of Urology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.