MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound Focal Therapy for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results from a 2-year Phase II Clinical Trial.

Background MRI-guided focal therapy (FT) allows for accurate targeting of localized clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) while preserving healthy prostate tissue, but the long-term outcomes of this approach require more study. Purpose To assess the 2-year oncological and functional outcomes of men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) treated with targeted FT. Materials and Methods In this single-center prospective phase II trial, men with localized unifocal intermediate-risk PCa underwent transrectal MRI-guided focused ultrasound between July 2016 and July 2019. Planned ablation volumes included 10-mm margins when possible. Data regarding adverse events were collected and quality-of-life questionnaires were completed by participants at 6 weeks and at 5, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Multiparametric MRI and targeted and systematic biopsies were performed at 24 months. Ablation volumes were determined by manual contouring of nonperfused volumes on immediate contrast-enhanced images. Generalized estimating equations were used to model trends in quality-of-life measures. Results Treatment was successfully completed in the 44 participants (median age, 67 years; IQR, 62-70 years; 36 patients with grade group [GG] 2; eight patients with GG 3). No major adverse events from treatment were recorded. One participant refused biopsy at 24 months. After 2 years, 39 of 43 participants (91%) had no csPCa at the treatment site and 36 of 43 (84%) had no cancer in the entire gland. No changes in International Index of Erectile Function-15 score or International Prostate Symptom Score were observed during 2-year follow-up (P = .73 and .39, respectively). Conclusion The majority of men treated with MRI-guided focused ultrasound for intermediate risk PCa had negative results for csPCa at biopsy 2 years after treatment. Additionally, there was no significant decline in quality of life per the validated questionnaires. Clinical trial registration no. NCT02968784 © RSNA, 2024 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Woodrum in this issue.

Radiology. 2024 Mar [Epub]

Sangeet Ghai, Antonio Finelli, Kateri Corr, Katherine Lajkosz, Stuart McCluskey, Rosanna Chan, Mark Gertner, Theodorus H van der Kwast, Peter F Incze, Alexandre R Zlotta, Walter Kucharczyk, Nathan Perlis

From the Joint Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network-Mount Sinai Hospital-Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, 585 University Ave, 1PMB-292, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2N2 (S.G., K.C., R.C., M.G., W.K.); Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Oncology (A.F., A.R.Z., N.P.), Department of Anesthesia (S.M.), and Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine Program (T.H.v.d.K.), University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Biostatistics Department, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (K.L.); and Department of Urology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Toronto, Canada (P.F.I.).