Lutetium-177 (177Lu) prostate-specific membrane antigen (177Lu-PSMA) is a novel targeted treatment for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Predictors of outcomes after 177Lu-PSMA to enhance its clinical implementation are yet to be identified. We aimed to develop nomograms to predict outcomes after 177Lu-PSMA in patients with mCRPC.
In this multicentre, retrospective study, we screened patients with mCRPC who had received 177Lu-PSMA between Dec 10, 2014, and July 19, 2019, as part of the previous phase 2 trials (NCT03042312, ACTRN12615000912583) or compassionate access programmes at six hospitals and academic centres in Germany, the USA, and Australia. Eligible patients had received intravenous 6·0-8·5 GBq 177Lu-PSMA once every 6-8 weeks, for a maximum of four to six cycles, and had available baseline [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT scan, clinical data, and survival outcomes. Putative predictors included 18 pretherapeutic clinicopathological and [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT variables. Data were collected locally and centralised. Primary outcomes for the nomograms were overall survival and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-progression-free survival. Nomograms for each outcome were computed from Cox regression models with LASSO penalty for variable selection. Model performance was measured by examining discrimination (Harrell's C-index), calibration (calibration plots), and utility (patient stratification into low-risk vs high-risk groups). Models were validated internally using bootstrapping and externally by calculating their performance on a validation cohort.
Between April 23, 2019, and Jan 13, 2020, 414 patients were screened; 270 (65%) of whom were eligible and were divided into development (n=196) and validation (n=74) cohorts. The median duration of follow-up was 21·5 months (IQR 13·3-30·7). Predictors included in the nomograms were time since initial diagnosis of prostate cancer, chemotherapy status, baseline haemoglobin concentration, and [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT parameters (molecular imaging TNM classification and tumour burden). The C-index of the overall survival model was 0·71 (95% CI 0·69-0·73). Similar C-indices were achieved at internal validation (0·71 [0·69-0·73]) and external validation (0·72 [0·68-0·76]). The C-index of the PSA-progression-free survival model was 0·70 (95% CI 0·68-0·72). Similar C-indices were achieved at internal validation (0·70 [0·68-0·72]) and external validation (0·71 [0·68-0·74]). Both models were adequately calibrated and their predictions correlated with the observed outcome. Compared with high-risk patients, low-risk patients had significantly longer overall survival in the validation cohort (24·9 months [95% CI 16·8-27·3] vs 7·4 months [4·0-10·8]; p<0·0001) and PSA-progression-free survival (6·6 months [6·0-7·1] vs 2·5 months [1·2-3·8]; p=0·022).
These externally validated nomograms that are predictive of outcomes after 177Lu-PSMA in patients with mCRPC might help in clinical trial design and individual clinical decision making, particularly at institutions where 177Lu-PSMA is introduced as a novel therapeutic option.
Prostate Cancer Foundation.
The Lancet. Oncology. 2021 Jul 08 [Epub ahead of print]
Andrei Gafita, Jeremie Calais, Tristan R Grogan, Boris Hadaschik, Hui Wang, Manuel Weber, Shahneen Sandhu, Clemens Kratochwil, Rouzbeh Esfandiari, Robert Tauber, Anna Zeldin, Hendrik Rathke, Wesley R Armstrong, Andrew Robertson, Pan Thin, Calogero D'Alessandria, Matthew B Rettig, Ebrahim S Delpassand, Uwe Haberkorn, David Elashoff, Ken Herrmann, Johannes Czernin, Michael S Hofman, Wolfgang P Fendler, Matthias Eiber
Ahmanson Translational Theranostics Division, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: ., Ahmanson Translational Theranostics Division, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Department of Medicine Statistics Core, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Department of Urology, University of Duisburg-Essen and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK)-University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany., Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK)-University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany., Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany., Excel Diagnostics and Nuclear Oncology Center, Houston, TX, USA., Department of Urology, Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany., Silicon Albion, London, UK., Department of Urology, UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Prostate Cancer Theranostics and Imaging Centre of Excellence (ProTIC), Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.