18F-Fluciclovine PET imaging has been increasingly used in the restaging of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR); however, its clinical utility in patients with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels following primary radiation therapy has not been well-studied. This study aims to determine the detection rate and diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluciclovine PET and the patterns of prostate cancer recurrence in patients with rising PSA after initial radiation therapy, particularly in patients with PSA levels below the accepted Phoenix definition of BCR (PSA nadir +2 ng/mL).
This retrospective study included patients from two tertiary institutions who underwent 18F-fluciclovine PET scans for elevated PSA level following initial external beam radiation therapy, brachytherapy, and/or proton therapy. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluciclovine PET and associations of PSA kinetic parameters with 18F-fluciclovine PET outcome.
One hundred patients were included in this study. The overall detection rate on a patient-level was 79% (79/100). 18F-Fluciclovine PET was positive in 62% (23/37) of cases with PSA below the Phoenix criteria. The positive predictive value of 18F-fluciclovine PET was 89% (95% CI: 80-94%). In patients with PSA below the Phoenix criteria, the PSA velocity had the highest predictive value of 18F-fluciclovine PET outcome. PSA doubling time (PSADT) and PSA velocity were associated with the presence of extra-pelvic metastatic disease.
18F-Fluciclovine PET can identify recurrent disease at low PSA level and PSA rise below accepted Phoenix criteria in patients with suspected BCR after primary radiation therapy, particularly in patients with low PSADT or high PSA velocity. In patients with low PSADT or high PSA velocity, there is an increased probability of extra-pelvic metastases. Therefore, these patients are more likely to benefit from PET/CT or PET/MRI than pelvic MRI alone.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2021 Jun 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Ali Salavati, Mehmet Gencturk, Yasemin Koksel, Allyssa N Schik, Peter R Carroll, Felix Y Feng, Steven P Rowe, Courtney Lawhn-Heath, Thomas A Hope, Jerry W Froelich
The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. ., Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA., Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA., The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA., Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.