In men with recurrence of prostate cancer post radiation therapy, further treatment remains a challenge. The default salvage option of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has adverse effects. Alternatively, selected men may be offered salvage therapy to the prostate. Herein, we present long-term oncological outcomes of two whole-gland ablation techniques, cryotherapy (sCT) and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (sHIFU).
Men undergoing sCT (1995-2004) and sHIFU (2006-2018) at Western University were identified. Oncological endpoints included biochemical recurrence (BCR), ADT initiation, metastases, castration resistance (CRPC), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Survival analysis with competing risks of mortality was performed. Multivariable analysis was performed using Fine and Gray regression.
A total of 187 men underwent sCT and 113 sHIFU. Mean (SD) age of the entire cohort was 69.9 (5.9 years), median pre-radiation PSA 9.6 ng/ml (IQR 6.1-15.2), and pre-salvage PSA 4.5 ng/ml (IQR 2.8-7.0). Median total follow-up was 116 months (IQR 67.5-173.8). A total of 170 (57.6%) developed BCR, 68 (23.4%) metastases, 143 (49.3%) were started on ADT, 58 (20.1%) developed CRPC, and 162 (56%) patients died of which 59 (36.4%) were of prostate cancer. On multivariable analysis, sHIFU (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.36, p = 0.006) and pre-salvage PSA (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.13, p < 0.0001) were associated with a higher risk of BCR. Similarly, sHIFU patients had a higher risk of CRPC (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4.35, p = 0.009). The cumulative incidence (for both treatments) of PCSM was 16.5% (95% CI 12.2-21.4%) at 10 years and 28.4% (95% CI 22.1-34.9%) at 20 years, with no difference between treatment modalities. Pre-salvage PSA was a common predictor for the measured oncological outcomes.
Although sHIFU had higher BCR and CRPC rates, there were no differences in PCSM when compared with sCT. The long-term oncological data on two ablation techniques highlighted that only 50% of patients started ADT after 10-year follow-up.
Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 2020 Aug 19 [Epub ahead of print]
Shiva M Nair, Max Peters, Piet Kurver, Arnon Lavi, Joost J C Verhoeff, Jochem R N van der Voort van Zyp, Marieke J van Son, Joseph L Chin
Departments of Urology and Oncology, Western University, London, ON, Canada., Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands., Departments of Urology and Oncology, Western University, London, ON, Canada. .