The consequences of prostate cancer metastasis remain severe, with huge impact on the mortality and overall quality of life of affected patients. Despite the convoluted interplay and cross talk between various cell types and secreted factors in the metastatic process, cytokine and chemokines, along with their receptors and signaling axis, constitute important factors that help drive the sequence of events that lead to metastasis of prostate cancer. These proteins are involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, premetastatic niche creation, extravasation, re-establishment of tumor cells in secondary organs as well as the remodeling of the metastatic tumor microenvironment. This review presents an overview of the main cytokines/chemokines, including IL-6, CXCL12, TGFβ, CXCL8, VEGF, RANKL, CCL2, CX3CL1, IL-1, IL-7, CXCL1, and CXCL16, that exert modulatory roles in prostate cancer metastasis. We also provide extensive description of their aberrant expression patterns in both advanced disease states and metastatic sites, as well as their functional involvement in the various stages of the prostate cancer metastatic process.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2020 Jun 23*** epublish ***
Timothy O Adekoya, Ricardo M Richardson
Julius L. Chambers Biomedical/Biotechnology Institute and Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707, USA.