Profiling of Circulating microRNAs in Prostate Cancer Reveals Diagnostic Biomarker Potential.

Early detection of prostate cancer (PC) is paramount as localized disease is generally curable, while metastatic PC is generally incurable. There is a need for improved, minimally invasive biomarkers as current diagnostic tools are inaccurate, leading to extensive overtreatment while still missing some clinically significant cancers. Consequently, we profiled the expression levels of 92 selected microRNAs by RT-qPCR in plasma samples from 753 patients, representing multiple stages of PC and non-cancer controls. First, we compared plasma miRNA levels in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or localized prostate cancer (LPC), versus advanced prostate cancer (APC). We identified several dysregulated microRNAs with a large overlap of 59 up/down-regulated microRNAs between BPH versus APC and LPC versus APC. Besides identifying several novel PC-associated dysregulated microRNAs in plasma, we confirmed the previously reported upregulation of miR-375 and downregulation of miR-146a-5p. Next, by randomly splitting our dataset into a training and test set, we identified and successfully validated a novel four microRNA diagnostic ratio model, termed bCaP (miR-375*miR-33a-5p/miR-16-5p*miR-409-3p). Combined in a model with prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination status, and age, bCaP predicted the outcomes of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies (negative vs. positive) with greater accuracy than PSA alone (Training: area under the curve (AUC), model = 0.84; AUC, PSA = 0.63. Test set: AUC, model = 0.67; AUC, PSA = 0.56). It may be possible in the future to use this simple and minimally invasive bCaP test in combination with existing clinical parameters for a more accurate selection of patients for prostate biopsy.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland). 2020 Mar 28*** epublish ***

Jacob Fredsøe, Anne K I Rasmussen, Peter Mouritzen, Marianne T Bjerre, Peter Østergren, Mikkel Fode, Michael Borre, Karina D Sørensen

Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark., Exiqon A/S, Skelstedet 16, 2950 Vedbaek, Denmark., Department of Urology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark., Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.