Despite frequent PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) loss and Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in prostate cancer, the disease is insensitive to single-agent mTOR inhibition. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibition might mitigate the feedback inhibition by Torc1 inhibitors, suppressing downstream Akt activation and, thus, potentiating the antitumor activity of mTOR inhibition.
In the present phase I study, patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer received 6 mg/kg cixutumumab and 25 mg temsirolimus intravenously each week. The primary objective was safety and tolerability. Temsirolimus was decreased if ≥ 2 dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed in 6 patients. The correlative analyses included measurement of circulating tumor cells, [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, 16β-[18F]-fluoro-α-dihydrotestosterone positron emission tomography, and tumor biopsy.
A total of 16 patients were enrolled across 3 cohorts (1, -1, -2). Two DLTs (grade 3 oral mucositis) were observed in cohort 1 (temsirolimus, 25 mg), and 1 DLT (grade 3 lipase) in cohort -1 (temsirolimus, 20 mg). The most common adverse events included hyperglycemia (100%; 31% grade 3), oral mucositis (63%; 19% grade 3), and diarrhea (44%; 0 grade 3). Low-grade pneumonitis occurred in 7 of 11 patients (44%; 0 grade 3), prompting the opening of a 3-weekly cohort (temsirolimus, 20 mg/kg), without pneumonitis events. No patient had a >50% decline in prostate-specific antigen from baseline. The best radiographic response was stable disease, with median study duration of 22 weeks (range, 7-63 weeks).
Despite a strong scientific rationale for the combination, temsirolimus plus cixutumumab demonstrated limited antitumor activity and a greater than expected incidence of toxicity, including low-grade pneumonitis and hyperglycemia. Hence, the trial was stopped in favor of alternative androgen receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-directed combinatorial therapies.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2020 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Deaglan J McHugh, Jay Chudow, Mia DeNunzio, Susan F Slovin, Daniel C Danila, Michael J Morris, Howard I Scher, Dana E Rathkopf
Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY., Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY., Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY. Electronic address: .