Liquid biopsy and prostate cancer. Current evidence applied to clinical practice.

Despite being a validated source of biomarkers, liquid biopsy has not yet succeeded in becoming part of the standard clinical practice in prostate cancer patients. Few biomarkers undergo adequate validation, prospective and independent, of their predictive and/or prognostic value, which results in a lack of the different available tests in the clinical practice.

To carry out a pragmatic synthesis of current scientific evidence on liquid biopsy for prostate cancer patients.

Non-systematic literature review, narrowing the search to papers on liquid biopsy from blood samples in prostate cancer patients. We mainly selected works evaluating clinical endpoints in prostate cancer.

The most clinically advanced forms of liquid biopsy are circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Both CTCs and ctDNA have demonstrated their prognostic value in metastatic disease. ARV7 determination is the first predictive biomarker of the disease. Its implementation into routine clinical practice requires methodological standardization and adequate clinical validation of the different available ways to detect it. The detection of CTCs in the early stages of the disease still depends on the optimization of the diagnostic methods and on the development of the biological characterization of these cells. The biological information provided by CTCs and ctDNA is different; therefore, the study of its adequate combination is the object of cutting-edge research.

The absence of protocols and methodological standards is the limiting factor when aiming to reach conclusions that could have a potential impact on clinical practice. Therefore, the real short-term challenge for liquid biopsy is the establishment of consensus and common criteria.

Actas urologicas espanolas. 2019 Dec 12 [Epub ahead of print]

I Puche-Sanz, A Rodríguez-Martínez, M C Garrido-Navas, I Robles-Fernández, F Vázquez-Alonso, M J Álvarez Cubero, J A Lorente-Acosta, M J Serrano-Fernández, J M Cózar-Olmo

Departamento de Urología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria-IBS, Granada, España. Electronic address: ., Departamento de Medicina Legal, Laboratorio de Identificación Genética, Universidad de Granada, Granada, España., Comprehensive Oncology Division. Hospital Clínico-Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Universidad de Granada, Granada, España., Departamento de Urología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria-IBS, Granada, España., Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular III, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, España.