Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the lethal form of the disease. Many groups have performed mutational or immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing in metastatic CRPC to identify treatment targets. However, the frequency with which mutational or IHC data have an impact on clinical decision making and the outcomes of molecularly guided therapy in CRPC are largely unknown. We report our institution's experience with mutational and IHC testing in patients with metastatic CRPC and its impact on clinical decision making and patient outcomes.
Between 2012 and 2015, 59 patients with CRPC underwent metastatic tissue biopsies and were genotyped with a 37-cancer gene panel in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified laboratory. PTEN expression by IHC testing was also measured in 35 of these samples. A retrospective chart review was performed to determine whether the genomic information was acted upon and the outcome of patients whose treatment was guided by molecular testing.
Forty-six of 59 patients with CRPC (78.0%) had biopsies with adequate tumor for mutational testing. Thirty-one of 46 subjects (67.4%) had mutations identified by sequencing. Of the 35 patients with CRPC whose biopsies were evaluated for PTEN expression by IHC testing, 13 had PTEN loss. Two patients had treatment on the basis of molecular testing, and one of these subjects had greater tumor control with molecularly guided therapy than his immediate prior therapy.
Targeted sequencing and IHC can identify clinically informative molecular abnormalities in CRPC. Despite this, a small minority of patients in our series underwent therapies guided by mutational or IHC testing. Actionability of abnormalities identified in metastatic CRPC may be improved with access to clinical trials, insurance approval for unapproved uses of existing anticancer drugs, and larger gene sequencing panels that include more frequently mutated genes.
JCO precision oncology. 2017 Jun 28 [Epub]
Derrick L Tao, Shawna Bailey, Tomasz M Beer, Erik Foss, Brooke Beckett, Alice Fung, Bryan R Foster, Alexander Guimaraes, Jeremy P Cetnar, Julie N Graff, Kristine M Eilers, Eric J Small, Christopher L Corless, George V Thomas, Joshi J Alumkal
Derrick L. Tao, Shawna Bailey, Tomasz M. Beer, Erik Foss, Brooke Beckett, Alice Fung, Bryan R. Foster, Alexander Guimaraes, Jeremy P. Cetnar, Julie N. Graff, Kristine M. Eilers, Christopher L. Corless, George V. Thomas, and Joshi J. Alumkal, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; and Eric J. Small, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.