Oncological outcome of neoadjuvant low-dose estramustine plus LHRH agonist/antagonist followed by extended radical prostatectomy for Japanese patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer: a prospective single-arm study.

Patients with advanced high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) are prone to have worse pathological diagnoses of positive surgical margins and/or lymph node invasion, resulting in early biochemical recurrence (BCR) despite having undergone radical prostatectomy (RP). Therefore, it is controversial whether patients with high-risk PCa should undergo RP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy (NAC) followed by "extended" RP.

A total of 87 patients with high-risk PCa prospectively underwent extended RP after NAC; most of the patients underwent 6 months of estramustine phosphate (EMP) 140 mg twice daily, along with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist/antagonist. We developed our surgical technique to reduce the rate of positive surgical margins. We aimed to approach the muscle layer of the rectum by dissecting the mesorectal fascia and continuing the dissection through the mesorectum until the muscle layer of the rectum was exposed.

More than 1 year had elapsed after surgery in all 86 patients, with a median follow-up period of 37.7 months. The 3-year BCR-free survival was 74.9%. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that a positive core ratio of 50% or greater and pathological stage of pT3 or greater were independent predictors for BCR. About 17 of 23 cases received salvage androgen deprivation therapy and concurrent external beam radiotherapy, and showed no progression after the salvage therapies.

NAC concordant with extended RP is feasible and might provide good cancer control for patients with high-risk PCa.

Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2019 Oct 28 [Epub ahead of print]

Hideki Enokida, Yasutoshi Yamada, Shuichi Tatarano, Hirofumi Yoshino, Masaya Yonemori, Takashi Sakaguchi, Hiroaki Nishimura, Rumiko Eura, Masayuki Nakagawa

Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.