Physiological 68Ga-RM2 Uptake in Patients with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: An Atlas of Semi-quantitative Measurements

68Ga-RM2 is a bombesin (BBN) analog that targets the gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) overexpressed in many cancer cells, including prostate cancer (PC). It has been reported to successfully detect primary and recurrent PC.

Here, we describe the distribution and range of physiological uptake of 68Ga-RM2 in 95 patients with biochemically recurrent (BCR) PC.

Ninety-five participants had simultaneous PET/MRI for BCR PC and were prospectively enrolled in this study. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) were measured in 24 normal anatomical structures for each participant. Three readers evaluated the images independently. Uptake in various normal tissues was classified into 4 different categories: no significant uptake if SUVmean was less than SUVmean of the aortic arch (AA); mild if SUVmean was less or equal to 2.5, but higher than SUVmean of the AA; moderate if SUVmean was higher than 2.5, but less or equal to 5; intense if SUVmean was higher than 5.

The most intense uptake was observed in the urinary bladder, due to excretion of the radiotracer. No significant uptake was seen in the brain, salivary glands, lungs, myocardium, skeleton, muscles, and fat. Liver, spleen, and adrenal glands had mostly no significant uptake; the gastrointestinal tract had intense physiological uptake, with pancreas being the organ with the highest SUVmax measurements (average SUVmax 64.91). Mild and moderate uptake was measured in the esophagus (average SUVmax 3.99), while the stomach wall, duodenum, and rectum had mild uptake (average SUVmax 2.49, 3.42, and 3.58, respectively).

68Ga-RM2 has been mostly evaluated for PC detection, but it can be used for other tumors overexpressing GRPR such as breast cancer. This atlas of normal biodistribution and SUV measurements in healthy tissues will help physicians distinguish between physiological vs. pathological uptake, as well as potentially assist with planning future studies using GRPR targeting radiopharmaceuticals.

European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2019 Sep 02 [Epub ahead of print]

Lucia Baratto, Heying Duan, Riccardo Laudicella, Akira Toriihara, Negin Hatami, Valentina Ferri, Andrei Iagaru

Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA., Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morpho-Functional Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy., Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. .

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