Multiparametric MRI - local staging of prostate cancer and beyond.

Background Accurate local staging is critical for treatment planning and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). The primary aim is to differentiate between organ-confined and locally advanced disease with the latter carrying a worse clinical prognosis. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is the imaging modality of choice for the local staging of PCa and has an incremental value in assessing pelvic nodal disease and bone involvement. It has shown superior performance compared to traditional staging based on clinical nomograms, and provides additional information on the site and extent of disease. MRI has a high specificity for diagnosing extracapsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and lymph node (LN) metastases, however, sensitivity remains poor. As a result, extended pelvic LN dissection remains the gold standard for assessing pelvic nodal involvement, and there has been recent progress in developing advanced imaging techniques for more distal staging. Conclusions T2W-weighted imaging is the cornerstone for local staging of PCa. Imaging at 3T and incorporating both diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can further increase accuracy. "Next generation" imaging including whole body MRI and PET-MRI imaging using prostate specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA), has shown promising for assessment of LN and bone involvement as compared to the traditional work-up using bone scintigraphy and body CT.

Radiology and oncology. 2019 May 08 [Epub ahead of print]

Iztok Caglic, Viljem Kovac, Tristan Barrett

Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK., Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia., Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.