Elective pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy: A propensity score matching analysis.

To investigate whether whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) improves biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) vs. prostate bed radiotherapy (PBRT) in prostate cancer patients receiving salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy.

Data from patients with prostate cancer who underwent SRT for biochemical recurrence between 2005 and 2012 in two academic institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Patients treated with WPRT in one hospital were compared with patients treated with PBRT in the other. Propensity scoring was performed to balance the characteristics of the different treatment groups, and bRFS was compared.

Data from a total of 191 patients were included in the analysis (WPRT, n = 108; PBRT, n = 83). The median follow-up period was 66 months. Prior to matching, patients who received WPRT had higher pathologic Gleason scores as well as a higher incidence of pre-SRT PSA levels >0.5 ng/mL and lower rates of concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy. Propensity score matching balanced these characteristics and generated a cohort comprising 56 patients from each group. In the matched cohort, the 5 year bRFS of the WPRT group was significantly higher than that of the PBRT group (65.9 vs. 42.2%, p = 0.017). Multivariate analysis revealed that WPRT was an independent prognostic factor for bRFS (hazard ratio: 0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.75, p = 0.002). This benefit of WPRT on bRFS was maintained in subgroup analyses, especially in patients with preoperative PSA level ≤20 ng/mL or pre-SRT PSA level ≥0.4 ng/mL.

These data suggest that, following radical prostatectomy, elective WPRT during SRT may improve bRFS compared with PBRT in selected patients. Patients with preoperative PSA level ≤20 ng/mL or pre-SRT PSA level ≥0.4 ng/mL represent a potential subgroup who benefit most from receiving WPRT. Results of prospective randomized trials are awaited to confirm this finding.

PloS one. 2019 Apr 11*** epublish ***

Changhoon Song, Sang Jun Byun, Young Seok Kim, Hanjong Ahn, Seok-Soo Byun, Choung-Soo Kim, Sang Eun Lee, Jae-Sung Kim

Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea., Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea., Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea., Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea., Department of Urology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

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