To determine the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver concordance of whole-body (WB)-MRI, vs. 99mTc bone scintigraphy (BS) and 18fluoro-ethyl-choline (18F-choline) PET/CT for the primary staging of intermediate/high-risk prostate cancer.
An institutional review board approved prospective cohort study carried out between July 2012 and November 2015, whereby 56 men prospectively underwent 3.0-T multiparametric (mp)-WB-MRI in addition to BS (all patients) ± 18F-choline PET/CT (33 patients). MRI comprised pre- and post-contrast modified Dixon (mDixon), T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Patients underwent follow-up mp-WB-MRI at 1 year to derive the reference standard. WB-MRIs were reviewed by two radiologists applying a 6-point scale and a locked sequential read (LSR) paradigm for the suspicion of nodal (N) and metastatic disease (M1a and M1b).
The mean sensitivity/specificity of WB-MRI for N1 disease was 1.00/0.96 respectively, compared with 1.00/0.82 for 18F-choline PET/CT. The mean sensitivity and specificity of WB-MRI, 18F-choline PET/CT, and BS were 0.90/0.88, 0.80/0.92, and 0.60/1.00 for M1b disease. ROC-AUC did not show statistically significant improvement for each component of the LSR; mean ROC-AUC 0.92, 0.94, and 0.93 (p < 0.05) for mDixon + DWI, + T2WI, and + contrast respectively. WB-MRI had an interobserver concordance (κ) of 0.79, 0.68, and 0.58 for N1, M1a, and M1b diseases respectively.
WB-MRI provides high levels of diagnostic accuracy for both nodal and metastatic bone disease, with higher levels of sensitivity than BS for metastatic disease, and similar performance to 18F-choline PET/CT. T2 and post-contrast mDixon had no significant additive value above a protocol comprising mDixon and DWI alone.
• A whole-body MRI protocol comprising unenhanced mDixon and diffusion-weighted imaging provides high levels of diagnostic accuracy for the primary staging of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. • The diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI is much higher than that of bone scintigraphy, as currently recommended for clinical use. • Staging using WB-MRI, rather than bone scintigraphy, could result in better patient stratification and treatment delivery than is currently provided to patients worldwide.
European radiology. 2018 Dec 05 [Epub ahead of print]
Edward William Johnston, Arash Latifoltojar, Harbir Singh Sidhu, Navin Ramachandran, Magdalena Sokolska, Alan Bainbridge, Caroline Moore, Hashim Uddin Ahmed, Shonit Punwani
UCL Centre for Medical Imaging, 2nd Floor Charles Bell House, 43 - 45 Foley Street, London, W1W 7TS, UK., Medical Physics, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BU, UK., Department of Urology, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BU, UK., Department of Urology, Imperial College London, Fulham Palace Road, Hammersmith, London, W6 8RF, UK., UCL Centre for Medical Imaging, 2nd Floor Charles Bell House, 43 - 45 Foley Street, London, W1W 7TS, UK. .