Oligometastatic prostate cancer: Reality or figment of imagination.

The term "oligometastatic prostate cancer" refers to a heterogeneous group of disease states currently defined solely on the basis of clinical features. Oligorecurrent disease, de novo oligometastases, and oligoprogressive disease likely have unique biologic underpinnings and natural histories. Evidence suggesting the existence of a subset of patients who harbor prostate cancer with limited metastatic potential currently includes disparate and overwhelmingly retrospective reports. Nevertheless, emerging prospective data have corroborated the "better-than-expected," retrospectively observed outcomes, particularly in the setting of oligorecurrent prostate cancer. Improved functional imaging with prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted strategies may enhance the identification of patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer in the short term. In the long term, refinement of the oligometastatic case definition likely will require biologic risk-stratification schemes. To determine optimal treatment strategies and identify patients most likely to benefit from metastasis-directed therapy, future efforts should focus on conducting high-quality, prospective trials with much-needed molecular correlative studies.

Cancer. 2018 Dec 06 [Epub ahead of print]

Corey C Foster, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Sean P Pitroda

Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

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