The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) metrics for the downgrading of Gleason score (GS) 9 or 10 prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosed by means of nontargeted transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy.
Between 2012 and 2015, 30 men with a diagnosis of GS 9 or 10 PCa at nontargeted transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy underwent 3-T multiparametric MRI before radical prostatectomy (RP). Two radiologists blinded to the histopathologic results independently assessed multiparametric MR images using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2. Whole-lesion ADC mean, centile, and texture features were extracted from coregistered ADC and RP maps by a third blinded radiologist. Comparisons were performed by chi-square, multivariable logistic regression, and ROC analysis.
Tumors were downgraded to intermediate risk (GS 4 + 3 [n = 7] and GS 3 + 4 [n = 2]) PCa in 30.0% (9/30) of men after RP. There were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to age (p = 0.028), prostate-specific antigen level (p = 0.018), or clinical stage (p = 0.021). PI-RADS version 2 scores did not differ between groups (p = 0.035, p = 0.091) with moderate agreement (κ = 0.48). There were no differences in mean or centile ADC (p = 0.269-0.634) between the two groups. ADC entropy was significantly lower in downgraded tumors (5.542 ± 0.721 [SD] vs 8.089 ± 1.237, p < 0.001) with no difference in kurtosis or skewness (p = 0.133, p = 0.296). The ROC AUC for the diagnosis of downgrading was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-1.00) with sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 88.9% when entropy was less than 6.31.
ADC entropy was significantly lower in GS 9 and 10 tumors diagnosed by means of nontargeted transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy that were eventually downgraded to intermediate risk (GS 7) after RP. ADC texture analysis may be useful for further risk stratification of PCa diagnosed at biopsy.
AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 2018 Jul 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Nima Sadoughi, Satheesh Krishna, Matthew D F McInnes, Trevor A Flood, Rodney H Breau, Christopher Morash, Nicola Schieda
1 Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ottawa Hospital, 1551 Riverside Dr, Ste 1104, Ottawa, ON K1G 4B5, Canada., 2 Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada., 3 Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada., 4 The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.