Low-risk Prostate Cancer Prior to or After Kidney Transplantation

Organ transplantation requires immunosuppression, which was regarded as a risk factor for tumor induction and tumor progression in all types of malignancy. Until recently, any form of active neoplasia was, therefore, regarded as contraindicative to organ transplantation. However, there is growing evidence that the increased tumor risk by immunosuppression is restricted to particular subgroups of malignancy, whereas others such as prostate cancer (PCa) are not negatively influenced.

To compare life expectancy (LE) under various low-risk situations of PCa (untreated low-risk primary tumor, slowly progressing asymptomatic biochemical recurrence after curative treatment) with LE under renal replacement therapy. To discuss the question whether or not low-risk untreated or incurable situations of PCa must be regarded contraindicative to kidney transplantation (KT) or to transplantation of other organs.

A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed to identify original and review articles regarding PCa risk after KT as well as the natural history of untreated and treated situations of PCa. Articles published between 1991 and 2018 were reviewed and selected with the consensus of all the authors.

No evidence could be found that KT and immunosuppression are associated with an increased PCa-related risk, neither in incidence nor in aggressiveness.

Screening for and treatment of PCa in applicants for KT or in patients after KT should be performed in an individualized manner on the basis of lifetime risk calculations. In particular, untreated or incurable low-risk manifestations (presumed LE >10 yr) of PCa cannot be regarded as strictly contraindicative against KT.

For prostate cancer, even when left untreated, a number of low-risk situations can be defined which are associated with a life expectancy (LE) of 15 yr and more. The LE of elderly patients suffering from end-stage renal failure often does not significantly exceed 15 yr even after kidney transplantation (KT). When remaining on dialysis, however, their further LE is significantly reduced and often far below 15 yr. To the best of the presently available knowledge, KT does not worsen or accelerate the course of untreated low-risk prostate cancer. Even in the presence of untreated low-risk prostate cancer, patients with end-stage renal failure must, therefore, be expected to significantly benefit from KT.

European urology focus. 2018 Jul 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Michael Stöckle, Kerstin Junker, Paolo Fornara

Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany., Department of Urology, Martin-Luther-University, Halle, Germany.