There are few data on outcomes for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (MUC) who receive chemotherapy (CT) after progression on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We carried out a retrospective single-centre analysis of MUC patients who progressed after ICI and then received CT. Patients fell into two groups: CT-naive (no prior-CT) and CT-pretreated (platinum-based CT followed by ICI on progression). The response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and duration of response (DOR) were assessed. A total of 29 patients received CT following progression on ICI. The median follow-up was 17.0mo (interquartile range 9.1-20.5mo). In the CT-naive group (n=17), 53% had a partial response, 18% had stable disease, and 29% had progressive disease. In the CT-pretreated group (n=12) 17% had a partial response, 67% had stable disease, and 16% had progressive disease. The median PFS was 6.4mo (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8-9.1) in the CT-naive and 4.4mo (95% CI 1.5-7.3) in the CT-pretreated group. The median DOR was 8.1mo (range 5.1-11.1) among the ten patients with a response to CT after ICI in both groups. Some 38% of patients in the CT-naive and 17% in the CT-pretreated group had dose reductions on post-ICI CT. CT and ICI can be sequenced after previous chemotherapy exposure, although this does not induce long-term durable remissions in most patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at outcomes for patients with metastatic bladder cancer who received chemotherapy after the cancer got worse while on immunotherapy. We found that patients can be safely treated with further chemotherapy. However, the positive effects of chemotherapy will not be durable in the majority of patients.
European urology oncology. 2019 Apr 09 [Epub ahead of print]
Jie M Lam, Wing K Liu, Thomas Powles, Yen Zhi Tang, Bernadett Szabados
Barts Cancer Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK., Barts Cancer Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Electronic address: .