Current chemotherapeutic treatment for advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma has substantial side effects and no randomized data to support an overall survival benefit. Immunotherapy with checkpoint blockade is currently being tested in penile cancer patients in clinical trials. The high PD-L1 expression and CD8+ T-cell infiltration in penile cancer represent a promising prospect for immunotherapy response in the treatment of locally advanced disease. For efficacious immunotherapy treatment, a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical. Here we use the structure revealed by cancer immunograms to define current knowledge of the penile cancer TME as a backbone for future research. PATIENT SUMMARY: Advanced penile cancer has a poor prognosis with a need for more effective therapy. In this manuscript we describe the potential of immunotherapy as a new treatment modality in penile cancer.
European urology focus. 2019 Mar 09 [Epub ahead of print]
Hielke-Martijn de Vries, Sarah R Ottenhof, Simon Horenblas, Michiel S van der Heijden, Ekaterina S Jordanova
Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Gynecology, Center for Gynecologic Oncology Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Center VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: .