[Molecular characterization of penile cancer : Literature review of new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets]

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (SCCP) is a rare cancer type in Western industrialized nations; nevertheless, it shows an aggressive course of disease in advanced tumor stages with accordantly high recurrence and progression rates. While molecular biomarkers are not established in clinical routine for the management of SCCP patients yet, the accordant unmet need is enormous, as adequate biomarkers would be meaningful for prognostic determination, planning of modality and extent of primary therapy, indication for inguinal lymph node resection, adjuvant treatment, and as potential targets for specific systemic treatment. SCCP regularly develops from a precursor lesion. In this regard, human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent and -independent pathways are differentiated. The potential for specific target therapy options is mainly based on the decoding of genetic and epigenetic signatures of distinct molecular pathways. In order to develop targeted and personalized treatment strategies based on molecular pathways, an increase in translational research in large multi-institutional collaborations must be promoted. This review article aims to summarize the current status of research concerning molecular changes related to SCCP under separate consideration of prognostic molecular markers, on the one hand, and biomarkers considered potential therapeutic targets, on the other hand. In addition, previous research activities of our own working group on this topic are briefly described.

Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 2018 Feb 22 [Epub ahead of print]

M May, S D Brookman-May, T H Ecke, M Burger

Urologische Klinik, Klinikum St. Elisabeth Straubing, St. Elisabeth-Str. 23, 94315, Straubing, Deutschland. ., Urologische Klinik, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) München, München, Deutschland., Urologische Klinik, Helios-Klinikum Bad Saarow, Bad Saarow, Deutschland., Urologische Klinik, Caritas-Krankenhaus St. Josef, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Deutschland.