The purpose of this review is to highlight the benefits of gender-neutral and the nonavalent human papillomavirus vaccination. Human papillomavirus infection is the most commonly sexually transmitted disease and is known to cause several types of cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, oropharyngeal, anal, and rectal. 5% of cancers every year are attributable to human papillomavirus infection, with cervical cancer the most common and oropharyngeal cancer estimated to surpass the incidence of cervical cancer by 2020.
PubMed and MEDLINE were searched using the following search terms: [(human papillomavirus OR HPV) AND (vaccine OR vaccination)] AND [(gardasil OR gardasil9 OR cervarix OR quadrivalent OR nonavalent OR ninevalent) OR (gender neutral OR male)].
There are currently three different types of human papillomavirus vaccinations and range in cover from four to nine different strains known to cause human disease. Most countries currently only supply vaccination to females; however, recent data point towards both a personal benefit as well as a cost-effective population-based benefit with gender-neutral vaccination. Data from female vaccination only have shown the vaccine to be effective in preventing premalignant cervical lesions, and are believed to have the same effect for other human papillomavirus cancers. Male vaccination not only provides personal benefit but also has a "herd effect" for females by preventing the propagation of the virus.
Gender-neutral vaccination provides significant cost-effective benefits for preventing human papillomavirus-related diseases, and this effect is further enhanced by the use of the nonavalent vaccine.
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2018 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Justin M Hintze, James P O'Neill
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, Ireland. ., Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, Ireland.