Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, MD Anderson, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 432, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, United States.
Diet, nutritional status, and certain dietary supplements are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Angiogenesis and inflammation are central to tumor growth and progression, but the effect of diet on these processes remains uncertain. We explored changes in 50 plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) in 145 men with prostate cancer enrolled in a pre-operative, randomized controlled phase-II trial with four arms: control (usual diet); low-fat (LF) diet; flaxseed-supplemented (FS) diet; and flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet. The mean duration of dietary intervention was 30-31 days. Compared to the control arm, 6 CAFs-including pro-angiogenic factors (stromal-cell derived-1 α and myeloid factors (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor , macrophage colony-stimulating factor- all decreased in the LF arm compared to controls; 3 and 4 CAFs changed in the FS and FS+LF arms, respectively. Weight loss occurred in the LF arms and significantly correlated with VEGF decreases (P < 0.001). The CAFs that changed in the LF arm are all known to be regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and a pathway analysis identified NF-κB as the most likely regulatory network associated with these changes in the LF arm, but not in the FS-containing arms. Additionally, a non-significant trend towards reduced NF-κB, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase-IX, and cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity was observed in resected prostate cancer specimens from the LF arm compared to controls. These results suggest that a low-fat diet without flaxseed may reduce levels of specific inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors and suggests that the NF-κB pathway may be a mediator of these changes.
Heymach JV, Shackleford TJ, Tran HT, Yoo SY, Do KA, Wergin M, Saintigny P, Vollmer RT, Polascik TJ, Snyder DC, Ruffin MT, Yan S, Dewhirst MW, Kunnamakkara AB, Aggarwal BB, Demark-Wahnefried W. Are you the author?
Reference: Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Jul 15. Epub ahead of print.