Treatment options and predictive factors for recurrence and cancer-specific mortality in bladder cancer after renal transplantation: A multi-institutional analysis

Bladder cancer (BC) in the transplanted population can represent a challenge owing to the immunosuppressed state of patients and the higher rate of comorbidities. The objective was to analyze the treatment of BC after renal transplant (RT), focusing on the mode of presentation, diagnosis, treatment options and predictive factors for recurrence.

We conducted an observational prospective study with a retrospective analysis of 88 patients with BC after RT at 10 European centers. Clinical and oncologic data were collected, and indications and results of adjuvant treatment reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method and uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed.

A total of 10,000 RTs were performed. Diagnosis of BC occurred at a median of 73 months after RT. Median follow-up was 126 months. Seventy-one patients (81.6%) had non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, of whom 29 (40.8%) received adjuvant treatment; of these, six (20.6%) received bacillus Calmette-Guérin and 20 (68.9%) mitomycin C. At univariate analysis, patients who received bacillus Calmette-Guérin had a significantly lower recurrence rate (P=.043). At multivariate analysis, a switch from immunosuppression to mTOR inhibitors significantly reduced the risk of recurrence (HR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.053-0.997, P=.049) while presence of multiple tumors increased it (HR 6.31, 95% CI: 1.78-22.3, P=.004). Globally, 26 patients (29.88%) underwent cystectomy. No major complications were recorded. Overall mortality (OM) was 32.2% (28 patients); the cancer-specific mortality was 13.8%.

Adjuvant bacillus Calmette-Guérin significantly reduces the risk of recurrence, as does switch to mTOR inhibitors. Multiple tumors increase the risk.

Actas urologicas espanolas. 2017 Nov 07 [Epub ahead of print]

O Rodriguez Faba, J Palou, H Vila Reyes, L Guirado, A Palazzetti, P Gontero, F Vigués, J Garcia-Olaverri, J M Fernández Gómez, J Olsburg, C Terrone, A Figueiredo, J Burgos, E Lledó, A Breda

Servicio de Urología, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, España. Electronic address: ., Servicio de Urología, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, España., Servicio de Nefrología, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, España., Servicio de Urología, University of Torino, Turín, Italia., Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, España., Servicio de Urología, Hospital de Cruces, Barakaldo, España., Servicio de Urología, Hospital Central de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España., Servicio Urología, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Londres, Reino Unido., Servicio Urología, University of Novara, Novara, Italia., Servicio Urología, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal., Servicio Urología, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España., Servicio Urología, Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España.