Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Bladder Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

To compare the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) versus observation in patients with non-organ confined disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy (RC).

Using the National Cancer Database, we identified patients who received NAC prior to RC and had advanced stage (pT3/4) or pathologically involved nodes (pN+) at the time of surgery from 2004-2013. We determined whether patients then received AC or were managed with observation only and used multivariable proportional hazards regression to estimate the impact of AC on overall survival.

Overall 34% (N = 705) of patients who received NAC and underwent RC were pT3/4 and/or pN+. Of these patients, 24% (N = 168) received subsequent chemotherapy and the rest were observed. Median survival for the entire cohort was 21 months (IQR 12-45). There was not a statistically significant difference in median survival between the AC and observation groups (23 months [IQR 14-46] versus 20 months [IQR 12-46], log-rank p = 0.52). On multivariate analysis there was no survival advantage for the AC cohort. Subgroup analysis of pN+ patients who received AC also did not show a survival advantage.

Patients who are pT3/4 and/or pN+ after NAC and RC have a poor prognosis. The addition of AC does not seem to be beneficial. Further research should focus identifying patients who may benefit from additional chemotherapy.

Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2017 Jul 27*** epublish ***

Wilson Sui, Emerson A Lim, G Joel Decastro, James M McKiernan, Christopher B Anderson

Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA., Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

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