The treatment options for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) remain limited. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was the last major breakthrough in bladder cancer therapy almost 4 decades ago. There have been improvements in the understanding of immune therapies and cancer biology, leading to the development of novel agents. This has led to many clinical trials that are currently underway to find the next generation of therapies for NMIBC.
We reviewed clinicaltrials.org and pubmed.gov to find the recently completed and ongoing clinical trials in NIMBC. Included in this review are clinical trials that are currently active and trials that were completed in and after 2014.
Many trials with BCG-naive and BCG-unresponsive/recurrent/refractory/failure patients with NMIBC are either currently underway or have been recently completed. A wide variety of novel therapeutic agents are being investigated that range from cytotoxic agents to immunomodulatory agents to targeted molecular therapies. Other approaches include cancer vaccines, gene therapies, and chemoradiation potentiation agents. Novel drug-delivery methods are also being tested.
This comprehensive update of current trials provides researchers an overview of the current clinical trial landscape for patients with NMIBC.
Urologic oncology. 2017 Aug [Epub]
Mohammad Rashid Siddiqui, Campbell Grant, Thomas Sanford, Piyush K Agarwal
Bladder Cancer Section, Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bathesda, MD., Department of Urology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C., Bladder Cancer Section, Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bathesda, MD. Electronic address: .