Effect of Urinary Cytology for Detecting Recurrence in Remnant Urothelium After Radical Cystectomy: Insights From a 10-year Cytology Database.

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of urinary cytology (UCy) for detecting recurrence in the remnant urothelium (RRU) after radical cystectomy (RC) for urothelial cancer.

We conducted a 10-year retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected, single-center RC database comprising 177 patients who had undergone follow-up examinations at our department with ≥ 1 available postoperative UCy specimen. UCy specimens were classified using the Papanicolaou scheme.

In total, 957 cytology specimens were collected. Negative UCy results were noted in 927 (96.8%), atypical urothelial cells in 19 (2.0%), and suspicious/positive for malignancy in 11 (1.2%) cases. RRU was diagnosed in 16 patients (9.1%) during a mean follow-up period of 37 months (range, 1-118 months). The mean interval from RC to RRU was 34.7 months. Only 2 of 11 positive UCy specimens (18.2%) were falsely positive, for an overall sensitivity and specificity of 56.3% and 98.8% for predicting RRU, respectively. Urethral recurrence was diagnosed by UCy alone before the patients had developed symptoms in 8 of 12 cases (66.7%). Patients with clinical symptoms at the diagnosis of RRU had poorer cancer-specific survival rates than those of asymptomatic patients, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = .496). Moreover, positive UCy findings were associated with significantly lower overall survival (P < .001) and cancer-specific survival (P = .04) compared with negative UCy findings.

Our results underline the predictive value of UCy in the surveillance of the remnant urothelium, with early detection of urethral recurrence before the development of clinical symptoms.

Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2017 Mar 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Renate Pichler, Gennadi Tulchiner, Wilhelm Oberaigner, Georg Schaefer, Wolfgang Horninger, Andrea Brunner, Isabel Heidegger

Department of Urology, Tyrolean State Hospitals, Cancer Registry of Tyrol, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Tyrolean State Hospitals, Cancer Registry of Tyrol, Innsbruck, Austria., Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Tyrolean State Hospitals, Cancer Registry of Tyrol, Innsbruck, Austria; Department of Public Health, Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria., Division of General Pathology, Department of Pathology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.