Outcomes of BCG Induction in High-Risk Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients (NMIBC): A Retrospective Cohort Study

Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is categorized into high-risk and low-risk groups. Although, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the recommended adjuvant therapy of high-risk bladder tumor, optimal schedule (induction versus maintenance) of this therapy is a subject of debate. The objective was to evaluate outcomes of induction BCG in high-risk NMIBC patients at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Pakistan and retrospective cohort study conducted in the department of urology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Pakistan. Three-year disease-free survival and progression-free survival was the main outcome measure. Data of 68 high-risk (Ta and T1 with G3 or high-grade subtype) bladder cancer patients who underwent transurethral resection followed by six-weekly intravesical BCG instillation was included in the study. Recurrence was described as biopsy-proven bladder cancer; whereas the presence of muscle invasion was considered as progression. Disease-free survival and progression-free survival were defined as time intervals elapsed between the starting date of BCG instillation and recurrence or progression, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curve was employed to estimate the three-year study end-points. Disease-free survival at three years was observed to be 66.2% and progression-free survival at 86.8%. The use of induction BCG alone for high-risk patients of NMIBC is a viable option both in terms of effective disease-free and progression-free survival rates.

Cureus. 2017 Jan 05*** epublish ***

Muhammad T Pirzada, Rashid Ghauri, Monis J Ahmed, Muhammad F Shah, Irfan Ul Islam Nasir, Jasim Siddiqui, Irfan Ahmed, Khurram Mir

Department of Surgical Oncology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre., Department of Surgery, Mediclinic City Hospital, Dubai, UAE.