Photodynamic diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: A meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data - Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies on hexaminolevulinate (HAL) cystoscopy report improved detection of bladder tumours.

However, recent meta-analyses report conflicting effects on recurrence.

OBJECTIVE: To assess available clinical data for blue light (BL) HAL cystoscopy on the detection of Ta/T1 and carcinoma in situ (CIS) tumours, and on tumour recurrence.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This meta-analysis reviewed raw data from prospective studies on 1345 patients with known or suspected non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

INTERVENTION: A single application of HAL cystoscopy was used as an adjunct to white light (WL) cystoscopy.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We studied the detection of NMIBC (intention to treat [ITT]: n=831; six studies) and recurrence (per protocol: n=634; three studies) up to 1 yr. DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model was used to obtain pooled relative risks (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes for detection.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: BL cystoscopy detected significantly more Ta tumours (14.7%; p< 0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 4.898; 95% CI, 1.937-12.390) and CIS lesions (40.8%; p< 0.001; OR: 12.372; 95% CI, 6.343-24.133) than WL. There were 24.9% patients with at least one additional Ta/T1 tumour seen with BL (p< 0.001), significant also in patients with primary (20.7%; p< 0.001) and recurrent cancer (27.7%; p< 0.001), and in patients at high risk (27.0%; p< 0.001) and intermediate risk (35.7%; p=0.004). In 26.7% of patients, CIS was detected only by BL (p<0.001) and was also significant in patients with primary (28.0%; p< 0.001) and recurrent cancer (25.0%; p< 0.001). Recurrence rates up to 12 mo were significantly lower overall with BL, 34.5% versus 45.4% (p=0.006; RR: 0.761 [0.627-0.924]), and lower in patients with T1 or CIS (p=0.052; RR: 0.696 [0.482-1.003]), Ta (p=0.040; RR: 0.804 [0.653-0.991]), and in high-risk (p=0.050) and low-risk (p=0.029) subgroups. Some subgroups had too few patients to allow statistically meaningful analysis. Heterogeneity was minimised by the statistical analysis method used.

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms that HAL BL cystoscopy significantly improves the detection of bladder tumours leading to a reduction of recurrence at 9-12 mo. The benefit is independent of the level of risk and is evident in patients with Ta, T1, CIS, primary, and recurrent cancer.

Written by:
Burger M, Grossman HB, Droller M, Schmidbauer J, Hermann G, Drăgoescu O, Ray E, Fradet Y, Karl A, Burgués JP, Witjes JA, Stenzl A, Jichlinski P, Jocham D.   Are you the author?
Department of Urology and Paediatric Urology, Julius-Maximilians University Medical Centre, Würzburg, Germany.

Reference: Eur Urol. 2013 Apr 8. pii: S0302-2838(13)00353-9.
doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.03.059

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 23602406 Bladder Cancer Section