Lifestyle and Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Recurrence, Progression, and Mortality: Available Research and Future Directions.

A broad, comprehensive review of studies exploring associations between lifestyle factors and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) outcomes is warranted to consolidate recommendations and identify gaps in research.

To summarize the literature on associations between lifestyle factors and clinical outcomes among patients with NMIBC.

PubMed was systematically queried for articles published through March 2019 regarding lifestyle factors and recurrence, progression, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality among patients with NMIBC.

Notwithstanding many ambiguities, there is good-quality evidence suggesting a benefit of smoking avoidance/cessation, healthy body mass index (BMI), and type II diabetes mellitus prevention and treatment. Lactobacillus casei probiotic supplementation may reduce recurrence. There have been individual studies suggesting a benefit for uncooked broccoli and supplemental vitamin E as well as avoidance of supplemental vitamin B9, areca nut chewing, and a "Western diet" pattern high in fried foods and red meat. Additional studies do not suggest associations between NMIBC outcomes and use of fibrin clot inhibitors; insulin and other oral hypoglycemics; statins; supplemental selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin B6; fluid intake and intake of specific beverages (e.g., alcohol, coffee, green tea, cola); various dietary patterns (e.g., Tex-Mex, high fruit and vegetable, low-fat); and occupational and chemical exposures.

Despite a myriad of publications on lifestyle factors and NMIBC, a need remains for research on unexplored associations (e.g., physical activity) and further studies that can elucidate causal effects. This would inform future implementation strategies for healthy lifestyle change in NMIBC patients.

Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2020 Mar 28 [Epub]

Kyle B Zuniga, Rebecca E Graff, David B Feiger, Maxwell V Meng, Sima P Porten, Stacey A Kenfield

Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

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