Cost-effectiveness of Pembrolizumab versus Carboplatin-based Chemotherapy as First-line Treatment of PD-L1-positive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Ineligible for Cisplatin-based Therapy in the United States.

Pembrolizumab has been approved in the United States (US) for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, who are ineligible for cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and with tumors expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) (Combined Positive Score ≥ 10), or ineligible for any platinum-containing chemotherapy regardless of PD-L1 status. Long-term KEYNOTE-052 data continue to demonstrate pembrolizumab's meaningful, durable, and well-tolerated antitumor activity. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab versus carboplatin plus gemcitabine as first-line treatment for cisplatin-ineligible patients who have PD-L1-positive tumors from a US third-party healthcare payer's perspective.

A partitioned survival model containing 3 health states (progression-free, progressed, and death) was developed. A simulated treatment comparison and a network meta-analysis were conducted to estimate the comparative efficacy of pembrolizumab versus carboplatin-based chemotherapy. Overall survival, progression-free survival, time on treatment, adverse events, and utilities were modeled using the final analyses of the KEYNOTE-052 trial and 4 studies for carboplatin plus gemcitabine. Cost data were estimated using US standard sources and real-world data. Deterministic, probabilistic, and scenario analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results.

Over 20 years, pembrolizumab resulted in a mean gain of 2.58 life-years, 2.01 quality-adjusted life-years, and additional costs of $158,561, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $78,925/quality-adjusted life-year compared with carboplatin plus gemcitabine.

This study suggests that pembrolizumab is cost-effective compared with carboplatin plus gemcitabine as a first-line therapy for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who are PD-L1-positive.

Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2020 Jul 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Oliver Hale, Karl Patterson, Yizhen Lai, Yang Meng, Haojie Li, James Luke Godwin, Blanca Homet Moreno, Ronac Mamtani

BresMed Health Solutions Ltd, Sheffield, UK., Merck & Co, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ. Electronic address: ., Merck & Co, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ., Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.